Library

The standard library is currently in development, so frequent changes will occur. Note that all std::core modules and sub modules are implicitly imported.

std::core::builtin

All functions and macros in this library can be used without path qualifiers.

void panic(char message, char file, char *function, uint line)

Default function called when the asserts fails.

void @swap(&a, &b)

Swap values in a and b.

int a = 3;
int b = 5;
@swap(a, b);
io::printfln("%d", a); // Prints 5

varcast(variant v, $Type)

Optionally cast the value v to type $Type* on failure returns VarCastResult.TYPE_MISMATCH.

int b;
variant a = &b;
float*! c = varcast(a, float); // Will return TYPE_MISMATCH
int*! d = varcast(a, int);     // Works!

void unreachable($string = "Unreachable statement reached.")

Mark a code path as unreachable.

switch (x)
{
  case 0:
    foo();
  case 1:
    bar();
  default:
    // Should never happen.
    unreachable("x should have been 0 or 1");    
}    

On safe mode this will throw a runtime panic when reached. For release mode the compiler will assume this case never happens.

bitcast(value, $Type)

Do a bitcast of a value to $Type, requires that the types are of the same memory size.

float x = 1.0;
int y = bitcast(x, int); // y = 0x3f800000

enum_by_name($Type, enum_name)

Optionally returns the enum value with the given name. $Type must be an enum. Returns SearchResult.MISSING on failure.

enum Foo { ABC, CDE, EFG }

fn void! test()
{
  Foo f = enum_by_name(Foo, "CDE")?; 
  // same as Foo f = Foo.CDE;
}

void @scope(&variable; @body)

Scopes a variable:

int a = 3;

@scope(a)
{
    a = 4;
    a++;
};

// Prints a = 3
io::printfln("a = %d", a, b);

less, greater, less_eq, greater_eq, equals

All macros take two values and compare them. Any type implementing Type.less or Type.compare_to may be compared (or if the type implements <). Types implementing Type.equals may use equals even if neither less nor compare_to are implemented.

Faults

  • IteratorResult returned when reaching the end of an iterator.
  • SearchResult used when a search fails.
  • VarCastResult when a variant cast fails.

std::core::env

Constants

  • OS_TYPE the OS type compiled for.
  • COMPILER_OPT_LEVEL the optimization level used.
  • I128_SUPPORT true if int128 support is available.
  • COMPILER_SAFE_MODE true if compiled with safety checks.

std::core::mem

malloc, malloc_checked, malloc_aligned

Allocate the given number of bytes. malloc will panic on out of memory, whereas malloc_checked and malloc_aligned returns an optional value. malloc_aligned adds an alignment, which must be a power of 2. Any pointer allocated using malloc_aligned must be freed using free_aligned rather the normal free or memory corruption may result.

char* data = malloc(8);
char*! data2 = malloc_checked(8);
int[<16>]*! data3 = malloc_aligned(16 * int.sizeof), 128);  

calloc, calloc_checked, calloc_aligned

Identical to malloc, except the data is guaranteed to be zeroed out.

relloc, relloc_checked, realloc_aligned

Resizes memory allocated using malloc or calloc. Any extra data is guaranteed to be zeroed out. realloc_aligned can only be used with pointers created using calloc_aligned or alloc_aligned.

free, free_aligned

Frees memory allocated using malloc or calloc.

char[] alloc_bytes(usz bytes)

Similar to malloc, but returns the data as a subarray. Will panic on out of memory.

alloc($Type)

Will allocate enough memory for exactly the type provided:

Foo* f = mem::alloc(Foo);

@scoped(Allocator* allocator; @body())

Swaps the current memory allocator for the duration of the call.

DynamicArenaAllocator dynamic_arena;
dynamic_arena.init(1024);
mem::@scoped(&dynamic_arena) 
{
    // This allocation uses the dynamic arena 
    Foo* f = mem::alloc(Foo);
};
// Release any dynamic arena memory.
dynamic_arena.destroy();    

@tscoped(; @body())

Same as @scoped, but uses the temporary allocator rather than any arbitrary allocator.

void* tmalloc(usz size, usz alignment = 0)

Allocates memory using the temporary allocator. Panic on failure.

void* tcalloc(usz size, usz alignment = 0)

Same as tmalloc but clears the memory.

void trealloc(void ptr, usz size, usz alignment = 0)

realloc but on memory received using tcalloc or tmalloc.

talloc($Type)

Like alloc but using the temporary allocator.

void @pool(;@body)

Opens a temporary memory scope.

@poo() 
{
    // This allocation uses the dynamic arena 
    Foo* f = talloc(Foo);
};

@volatile_load(&x)

Returns the value in x using a volatile load.

// Both loads will always happen:
int y = @volatile_load(my_global);
y = @volatile_load(my_global);

@volatile_store(&x, y)

Store the value y in x using a volatile store.

// Both stores will always happen:
@volatile_store(y, 1);
@volatile_store(y, 1);

usz aligned_offset(usz offset, usz alignment)

Returns an aligned size based on the current offset. The alignment must be a power of two. E.g. mem::aligned_offset(17, 8) would return 24

usz aligned_pointer(void* ptr, usz alignment)

Returns a pointer aligned to the given alignment, using aligned_offset.

bool ptr_is_aligned(void* ptr, usz alignment)

Return true if the pointer is aligned, false otherwise.

void copy(void dst, void src, usz len, usz $dst_align = 0, usz $src_align = 0, bool $is_volatile = false)

Copies bytes from one pointer to another. It may optionally be set as volatile, in which case the copy may not be optimized away. Furthermore the source and destination alignment may be used.


Foo* f = talloc(data_size);
mem::copy(f, slice.ptr, size); 

void set(void* dst, char val, usz len, usz $dst_align = 0, bool $is_volatile = false)

Sets bytes to a value. This operation may be aligned and/or volatile. See the copy method.

void clear(void* dst, usz len, usz $dst_align = 0, bool $is_volatile = false)

Sets bytes to zero. This operation may be aligned and/or volatile. See the copy method.

@clone(&value)

Makes a shallow copy of a value using the regular allocator.

Foo f = ...

return @clone(f); 

@tclone(&value)

Same as @clone but uses the temporary allocator.

std::core::mem::array

alloc($Type, usz elements)

Allocate a slice with elements number of elements, returning a subarray of the given length. Elements are not initialized. array::talloc variant uses the temporary allocator.

int[] ints = array::alloc(int, 100);

make($Type, usz elements)

Like array::alloc but all elements are cleared. tmake variant uses the temporary allocator.

std::core::types

bool is_comparable($Type)

Return true if the type can be used with comparison operators.

bool is_equatable_value(value)

Return true if the value can be compared using the equals macro.

bool is_equatable_value(value)

Return true if the value can be compared using the comparison macros.

kind_is_int(TypeKind kind)

variant_to_int(variant v, $Type)

Returns an optional value of $Type if the variant value losslessly may be converted into the given type. Returns a ConversionResult otherwise.

variant v = &&128;
short y = variant_to_int(v, short)!!; // Works 
ichar z = variant_to_int(v, ichar)!!; // Panics VALUE_OUT_OF_RANGE

std::core::string::conv

usz! char32_to_utf8(Char32 c, char* output, usz available)

Convert a UTF32 codepoint to an UTF8 buffer. size has the number of writable bytes left. It returns the number of bytes used, or UnicodeResult.CONVERSION_FAILED if the buffer is too small.

void char32_to_utf16_unsafe(Char32 c, Char16** output)

Convert a UTF32 codepoint to an UTF16 buffer without bounds checking, moving the output pointer 1 or 2 steps.

std::io

usz! printf(char[] format, args...) @maydiscard

Regular printf functionality: %s, %x, %d, %f and %p are supported. Will also print enums and vectors.

usz! String.printf(String* str, char[] format, args...) @maydiscard

Same as printf but on strings.

usz! File.printf(File file, char[] format, args...) @maydiscard

Same as printf but on files.

void! File.open(File* file, char[] filename, char[] mode)

Open a file with the given file name with the given mode (r, w etc)

void! File.seek(File *file, long offset, Seek seekMode = Seek.SET)

Seek in a file. Based on the libc function.

void! File.close(File *file) @inline

Close a file, based on the libc function.

bool File.eof(File* file) @inline

True if EOF has been reached. Based on the libc function.

void! File.putc(File *file, char c)

Write a single byte to a file. See the libc function.

usz File.read(File file, void buffer, usz items, usz element_size = 1)

Read into a buffer, based on the libc function.

usz File.write(File file, void buffer, usz items, usz element_size = 1)

Write to a buffer, based on the libc function.

stdout(), stdin(), stderr()

Return stdout, stdin and stderr respectively.

std::array::list

Generic list module, elements are of Type.

import std::array::list;
define MyIntList = List<int>;

...

MyIntList list;
list.push(123);
list.free();

List.push(List *list, Type element), append(...)

Append a single value to the list.

Type List.pop(List* list)

Removes and returns the last entry in the list.

Type List.pop_first(List *list)

Removes the first entry in the list.

void List.remove_at(List *list, usz index)

Removes the entry at index.

void List.insert_at(List *list, usz index, Type type)

Inserts a value at index.

void List.push_front(List *list, Type type)

Inserts a value to the front of the list.

void List.remove_last(List* list)

Remove the last value of the list.

void List.remove_first(List *list)

Remove the first element in the list.

Type List.first(List list)

Return the first element in the list if available.

Type List.last(List list)

Return the last element in the list if available.

List.is_empty(List *list)

Return true if the list is empty.

usz List.len(List *list)

Return the number of elements in the list.

Type List.get(List *list, usz index)

Return the value at index.

void List.free(List *list)

Free all memory associated with this list.

void List.swap(List *list, usz i, usz j)

Swap two elements in the list.